Dušica P Ilić*
University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Serbia
*Corresponding author:Dušica P Ilić, University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18115 Niš, Serbia
Submission: May 25, 2022;Published: June 29, 2022
ISSN: 2637-7802 Volume 7 Issue 2
This work is devoted to scientific research carried out to investigate the content of cranberry fruits (Vaccinium macrocarpon L., Ericaceae). To evaluate the influence of composition on anti-inflammatory activity, cranberry fruits were collected from eight Serbia growing regions. Eight extracts from these fruits were prepared. Extracts were analyzed for phytochemical composition and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytes (THP-1 cells). All were able to reduce Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) at 50μg/mL, with inhibition ranging between 10.09-42.7%. The research results show phytochemicals present in varying quantities in cranberry fruits a role in the anti-inflammatory effects of cranberry extracts on human monocytes.
Keywords:Cranberry; Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Cytokines; Polyphenols; Phytochemicals; Monocytes
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L., Ericaceae) has become the subject of interest of the food industry in the last two decades due to the increased awareness of consumers about functional food and its preventive and positive effects on human heal . Cranberry is a rich of valuable phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds and vitamins [2,3]. Earlier research showe screening of bioactive components found in cranberry juice and as well the determination of its antibacterial and antioxidant activities . Cranberry fruits (Vaccinium macrocarpon L., Ericaceae) can have different the secondary metabolite content of can vary with environmental factors. To evaluate the influence of composition on anti-inflammatory activity, cranberry fruits were collected from eight Serbia growing regions. Eight extracts from these fruits were prepared.
This study suggests that cranberry juice has the potential to be used as a natural preservative formulation in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications . There is great interest in understanding the relationship between cranberries’ phytochemical constituents and their potential health beneficial effects. In cranberry polyphenols and triterpenoids have been linked to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties . The major polyphenols in cranberry fruit are A-type Proanthocyanidin oligomers (PACs), flavonol glycosides including quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside) as the most abundant one and anthocyanins (such as cyanidin and peonidin glycosides). Among the polyphenols, PACs content is by far the highest . PACs vary widely among cultivars fruit , similarly as well as the content of anthocyanins and dry weight depending on factors including cultivar, harvest date, and growing region [6,7]. The major non-phenolic compound in the peel of cranberry fruit is ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid. They show with antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects depending on cultivar and growing region . In cranberries other triterpenoids identified are oleanolic acid  and corosolic acid . Corosolic acid and maslinic acid are present in lesser quantities than ursolic and oleanolic acid . Previous studies reported that cranberry extracts can reduce inflammation in various enzyme- based and cellular models . Polyphenols cranberries exert anti-inflammatory effects in periodontal models .
Treatment with a polyphenol-rich cranberry juice isolate containing approximately 65% PACs reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in macrophages stimulated with LPS derived from oral bacteria . Phytochemical constituents in whole cranberries may mitigate inflammation in colon tissue, suggesting that cranberry extracts rich in these compounds (polyphenols or ethyl-acetate soluble non-polyphenol constituents) may have the potential to mediate chronic inflammation-related diseases . The anti-inflammatory effects of cranberry are influenced by multiple phytochemical constituents including triterpenoids and polyphenols. This study is to invest whether the content of the major phytochemicals in extracts of whole cranberry fruit influences their anti-inflammatory effects .
Together, data with previous studies of the polyphenols and triterpenoids in cranberry fruit and other plant sources suggest that inflammatory signaling pathways in differentiated THP-1 monocytes may be modulated by the mixture of secondar metabolites found in cranberry. Demonstrated that the response of THP-1 cells to treatment with cranberry extracts prepared from fruits of different origins varies significantly. Anthocyanins, total polyphenols, ursolic acid or corosolic acid were the most capable of reducing pro-inflammatory signaling in these cells. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms of action and fully examine the agricultural factors that affect secondary metabolite content in the fruit. As cranberry fruit and products vary significantly in content of these phytochemicals, information on their contributions towards anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties can be helpful in guiding product development and adds to understanding of cranberry as a functional food.
Funding was provided according to the Program for financing scientific research work, number 451-03-68 / 2022-14 / 200102 (Research Groups III 44006) from the Republic of Serbia (Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development).
© 2022 Dušica P Ilić. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.