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Advances in Complementary & Alternative medicine

Cognitive Hypnotherapy and EMDR: The Longitudinal Effects on Trait Anxiety and Music Performance in Advanced Pianists

  • Open or CloseElizabeth Brooker*

    University of Leeds, School of Music, UK

    *Corresponding author: Dr. Elizabeth Brooker, Stone Hall, Bidford-on-Avon, Warks. B50 4LN, UK. Email.

Submission: November 05, 2019; Published: November 21, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/ACAM.2019.05.000616

ISSN: 2637-7802
Volume5 Issue4


Investigations into the effect of trait anxiety on a music performance have mainly focused on the conscious mind with a paucity of research into the role that implicit processes exert. The aim of this research was to investigate Cognitive Hypnotherapy (CH) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapies that target implicit processes, to establish the long-term effect on trait anxiety in advanced pianists, and to further assess if a reduction in trait levels exerted a reciprocal influence on performance outcome. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, CH or EMDR, and received two interventions of the designated therapy during a two-week period. Quantitative data were collected through the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait portion) at baseline (n=46) and at four months and one-year post-intervention (respectively n=34, n=17); baseline levels of trait scores were used as a control indicator. Qualitative information on performance experiences was documented at the same longitudinal monitoring points (n=9, n=4) through a self-report questionnaire pre-intervention and a log of experience post-intervention. Significant decreases below baseline trait scores were reported in both groups at the longitudinal measurement points. Comparative analysis of the qualitative questionnaires indicated that trait levels were related to performance outcome and that a significant reduction in trait anxiety exerted a positive effect on cognitions and performance. This is an important area for future research having broader implications in other fields: however further investigations and validation is required to confirm these effects.

Keywords: trait anxiety; music performance anxiety; psychodynamic therapies; implicit processes; longitudinal effects

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