Crimson Publishers Publish With Us Reprints e-Books Video articles


Advances in Complementary & Alternative medicine

Heme and HIV: Complementary Therapies for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV through Mitochondrial Pathways

  • Open or CloseAvrille Semo1, Nicholas A Kerna1,2* and Orien L Tulp1

    1 College of Medicine, University of Science, Arts & Technology, Montserrat, BWI

    2 Suriwongse Medical Center, Thailand

    *Corresponding author: Nicholas A Kerna, College of Medicine, University of Science, Arts & Technology, 4288 Youngfield Street, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033, USA ,

Submission: January 09, 2019;Published: January 22, 2019

DOI: 10.31031/ACAM.2019.03.000571

ISSN: 2637-7802
Volume3 Issue5


Heme formation can be described and understood via various pathways. Herein, a foundation of heme formation will be characterized by four distinct, but interconnected, tracts: locations of heme formation, pathways of heme formation, functions of heme, and disorders in heme formation. This paper reviews the healthy state of mitochondria and the cell (and thus, normal heme formation and function) in unperturbed states and correlates disruptions in one or more of the four tracts mentioned above regarding heme in disease, in particular, HIV. This investigation (on a basic, fundamental, and condensed level) lays the groundwork for assessing certain conditions (and risk factors thereof) from a cellular level by connecting defects in heme formation and mitochondrial aberrations with complementary therapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV. This economical complementary addition to HIV prevention and treatment could prove valuable globally and especially to countries with limited resources.

Keywords: Anemia; Delta-aminolevulinic acid; Cytochrome P450; Enzyme defect; Heme; HIV; Krebs cycle; Mitochondria; Porphyria; Prosthetic groups; Protoporphyrinogen; RBC

Abbreviations: ALA: Aminolevulinic Acid; ΔALAS2: Delta-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2; CAC: Citric Acid Cycle; ΔALA: Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid; HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; MRC: Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain; PBMC: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell; PCG-1a: Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator; RBC: Red Blood Cell

Get access to the full text of this article