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Archives of Blood Transfusion & Disorders

Effects of Mobile Phone-Derived Electromagnetic Fields on Some Thrombocytopoiesis Parameters in Experimental Animals

Valery Pogorelov M*

Department of industrial and clinical transfusion, Russia

*Corresponding author: Valery M Pogorelov, Department of industrial and clinical transfusion, Moscow, Russia

Submission: November 29, 2018;Published: December 06, 2018

DOI: 10.31031/ABTD.2018.01.000522

ISSN 2578-0239
Volume1 Issue5

Editorial

The electromagnetic radiation radiotelephone, as other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may have a deleterious effect on human health. In this regard, the effects of EMFs in humans and animals need to be examined as in the clinic and in the experiment. Curcio [1] have been reviewed and discussed the most relevant studies on regarding effects of mobile phone-derived EMFs on human cognition [1]. This mini review allows to conclude that there is a substantial lack of evidence about a negative influence of non-ionizing radiations on attention functioning. Nonetheless, published literature is very heterogeneous under the point of view of methodology (type of signal, exposure time, blinding), dosimetry (accurate evaluation of specific absorption rate or emitted power), and statistical analyses, making arduous a conclusive generalization to everyday life. For example, Thakare & Utane [2] highlighted the effect of EMFs exposure on human health: causes an increase in the production of free radicals, neuronal damage in the central nervous system prenatal and early adult, a significant increase in fetal abnormalities and spontaneous abortions in pregnant, reduces mobility and changes the morphology of isolated sperm cells [2].

Besides, Usman et al. [3], Sani et al. [4] showed that long time exposure of EMFs in experimental animal’s might pose detrimental effects to liver, blood cells and their functions; hoverer, there are effects of different frequencies of EMFs on the blood and blood formation in animals’ contradictory [3,4]. In early experiments with male rats Trosic et al. [5] noted an increase in the number of circulating red and white blood cells under the influence of EMFs [5]. There was not conclusive evidence on the effects of EMFs on thrombocytopoiesis. Singh et al. [6] linking EMFs effect in rats with reduced oxygen-binding ability of hemoglobin, i.e. hypoxia and not excluding the contribution to it of kidney damage, still assumed that radiation affects blood clotting and affects the bone marrow hematopoiesis animals [6]. Babaei et al. [7] have experimentally demonstrated that the timing of 10-14 days (formation of the liver) and 17-21 days (start of embryonic hematopoiesis) finding pregnant female mice to EMFs (50 Hz), the number of megakaryocytes in the liver of embryos insignificantly (p= 0.10) decreased [7].

At the same time, Hashem & El-Sharkawy [8], repeatedly (at 4 hours per day) for 30 days EMFs affecting (50 Hz, 2 MT) 6-week healthy mice (Swiss albino), registered leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, monocytosis as well as a significant increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and platelet count [8]. Based on the fluorescence of the stained cells scatterogram new optical platelet count methods, allow considering as normal, immature (reticulated) and giant platelets, to distinguish them from the “noise” or other cells [9]. The ratio of platelets to fluoresce red cell count, the total number of platelets, can be used when calibrating the impedance analyzer, as does not depend on artifacts pipetting or dilution and has a high reproducibility and precision (CV< 5%). A new automated method to reliably quantify reticulated platelets (RPs), expressed as the immature platelet fraction (IPF), has been developed utilizing the XE-2100 blood cell counter with upgraded software (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan).

For example, IPF as a percentage of total platelet count has been examined as a diagnostic tool to differentiate aplastic and consumptive thrombocytopenic states [10]. Interestingly, the changes in the morphology of platelets allowed Bessis [11] at the time to connect the appearance in the peripheral blood of platelets with regenerative bone marrow response and forced thrombocytopoiesis [11]. That is what led to the need for their research in the blood of experimental animals. It turned out that the conditions for the implementation of reserves thrombocytopoiesis by RPs in rats or dogs are due to thrombocytopenia (platelet consumption) and increasing the synthesis of thrombopoietin stimulates the production of new platelets [12,13]. The goals of Smith & Thomas [14] study were to establish a reproducible method to quantitate RPs in dogs, to establish a reference interval for RPs percentages in healthy dogs, and to determine whether the percentage of RPs was nonspecifically increased in nonthrombocytopenic dogs with clinical disease [14].

A blood samples stained with Thiazole Orange (TO) and a phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibody to platelet CD61, then analyzed by flow cytometry. The coefficients of variation were 7.8% to 15.6% (intra-assay precision) and 6.1% to 19.5% (inter-assay precision). The reference interval for RPs in the healthy control group was 0-4.3% (0-12,095/microL). No significant differences were found in the mean percentage of RPs or absolute concentration of RPs between control and affected dogs. These studies demonstrate a reliable, noninvasive diagnostic assay for measurement of RPs in whole blood and provide a baseline for assessment of the clinical utility of the assay. So, it was experimentally found that the frequency of RPs-sensitive, having an advantage over other platelet parameters thrombocytopoiesis control test animals. In experiments with non-ionizing radiation, in contrast to the above items, Singh et al. [6] taking blood from retro-orbital area male rats for 30 days animals receiving distilled water treated with EMFs (50Hz, 51.2mkL/36.2ICB) revealed thrombocytosis, thus confirming the powerful impact of electromagnetic waves on the blood [6].

In our experiments in rats was not thrombocytopenia also; conversely, in the blood samples of the irradiated animals demonstrated an increase in total number of platelets, and at a decreased proportion of immature platelets were positively correlated with count platelet at all points of the study [15]. Therefore, we cannot assume that the EMFs in the frequency ranges given us radio waves activates thrombocytopoiesis rats. However, it should be borne in mind that RPs circulate in peripheral blood for 24-36h [16], whereas we evaluated their content on days 12 and 28 of the experiment. At the same time, it is known that in rat’s experimental thrombocytosis does not occur due to the activation of thrombocytopoiesis: after splenectomy, for example, the number of platelets in the blood of animals increases due to the redistribution of these cells [17].

Perhaps in our case, the rats exposed to EMFs had platelet exit from the depot: a significant (p< 0.05) weight loss of the spleen. According to Bentfeld et al. [18] platelets secrete lysosomal enzymes in the early stages of thrombus formation: the reaction product is determined in a diffuse form in almost all platelets [18]. Polasek [19] concluded that acid phosphatase is associated with procoagulant platelet activity [19]. From the results of our experiment, it follows that the proportion of platelets containing acid phosphatase in the blood of rats at the end of radiation did not depend on the exposure time and significantly (p< 0.05) increased compared with the control: from 12.0±1.3% to 13.0±1.2% versus 8.0±0.7%. However, in our case, this may not be related to the EMFs, but is a consequence of the methodological features of the study: the decapitation procedure itself increases the hemostatic activity of the spleen of platelets and accelerates blood coagulation.

Thus, the results obtained in experiments showed that the radiotelephone of electromagnetic radiation (selected EMF ranges) do not affect thrombocytopoiesis: RPs in animals’ blood decreases when the total number of circulating platelets increases. In this regard it is important that in acute blood loss in experimental animals [20], as well as in plateletpheresis in humans [21], thrombocytopenia (real or relative) is accompanied by an increase in RPs. In contrast, γ-irradiation of rats in the experiment, apparently differing fundamentally from non-ionizing radiation of a radiotelephone, suppresses the formation of platelets in the bone marrow and their hemostatic activity in peripheral blood: the total number of platelets, the number of RPs, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the cells fall [22,23].

References

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© 2018 Valery Pogorelov M. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



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