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Modern Research in Dentistry

Cigarette Smoke: An Insight on Noncancerous Oral Manifestations

  • Open or Close Hasan Baber1*, Zunaira Rabbani2, Ambreen Sheraz3 and Zia Abbas4

    1Assistant Professor, Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan

    2Department of Periodontology, Baqai Medical University, Pakistana

    3Private Dental Practioner, Pakistan

    4Associate Professor, Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan

    *Corresponding author: Hassan Baber, Assistant Professor, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan, Tel: +923352369977;Email:

Submission: April 24, 2018; Published: May 21, 2018

Volume2 Issue4


Introduction: Oral lesions can occur due to number of factors such as trauma, infections, irritation, systemic diseases and oral consumption of tobacco. Changes associated in oral cavity as a result of smokeless tobacco are of utmost importance, and with such a high prevalence rate epidemiological studies must be carefully carried out. Present study is an effort to narrow the gap in determine prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among smokeless tobacco users of Pakistani Population.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of six months at Dental OPDs of Sindh, via aid of a validated custom-made questionnaire. Random sampling technique was adopted among patients attending dental OPDs, making using of OPEN API online software determining sample size as 289, with limitation included exclusion of pregnant women, edentulous individuals, children under age of 18 years and those having oral manifestations associated with any systemic disease. Statistical analysis included logistic regression and chi-square for determine odds ratio and possible associations.

Result: Logistic regression model 71% predicted discoloration of buccal mucosa 206 times in absence of any predictor variable. Discoloration of oral tissues was prevalent among individuals who chewed tobacco at least 5 times or more in a day. Periodontal associated damage was also prevalent among 5 times/day and more tobacco chewers, in line with similar studies elsewhere.

Conclusion: Study has demonstrated specific smokeless tobacco associated oral lesions. Further studies including other factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and incorporating more number of participants including different provinces of Pakistan will help in further confirming our findings and report oral effects of frequency of smokeless tobacco at a national level.

Keywords: Smokeless tobacco; Discolouration; Lesions; OPDs

Abbreviation: OPD: Outpatient Department; SEOM: Standard Error of Mean; WHO: World Health Organization

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