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Environmental Analysis & Ecology Studies

What Do We Know About Toxigenic, Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria at the Beginning of The 21st Century?

  • Magdalena Toporowska*

    Department of Hydrobiology and Protection of Ecosystems, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland

    *Corresponding author: Magdalena Toporowska, Department of Hydrobiology and Protection of Ecosystems, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Dobrzańskiego 37, Lublin 20-262, Poland, Tel: +48 81 461-00-61/304; Fax: +48 81 461-00-61/304; Email:

Submission: February 12, 2018; Published: April 03, 2018

Volume2 Issue1
April 2018


Cyanobacteria are microscopic, prokaryotic organisms capable of mass development in aquatic ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms, observed often in various fresh and brackish waters, are growing global problem due to the eutrophication process and climate changes. Different cyanobacterial species may produce wide range of various biologically active secondary metabolites, which may be harmful to aquatic organisms, animals and humans. Microcystins (MCs) are the most known and frequently studied cyanobacterial compounds classified to cyanotoxins. But cyanobacteria are producers of several hundred of other toxins (e.g. nodularins, cylindrospermopsins, anatoxins, saxitoxins), and potentially harmful substances (e.g. oligopeptides other than MCs). In this paper, the present knowledge about cyanobacterial blooms, toxins and other metabolites produced is shown concisely with references to the latest review reports broadly describing the issues discussed. Human health risks caused by cyanobacteria is also presented.

keywords: Cyanobacteria; Cyanotoxins; Anatoxin; Nodularin; Oligopeptides; Eutrophication

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