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Environmental Analysis & Ecology Studies

The Effect of Warm Spring in Ikogosi and Arinta Waterfall in Nigeria

Owolabi Bo*

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Owolabi Bo, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nigeria

Submission: February 24, 2018; Published: February 21, 2018

DOI: 10.31031/EAES.2019.04.000605

ISSN 2578-0336
Volume5 Issue1

Abstract

Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Over the years it has cut through human developments to economic development of regions, nations and the world at large. Tourism generates wealth and employment. It’s served as a major source of income and foreign exchange earners for countries. The Ikogosi-Arinta Ekiti warm spring tourist centre is a tourist destination; it offers numerous values ranging from historical, environmental monuments and rich cultural heritage of the people. It’s a wonder to behold. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of the Ikogosi cold/warm spring tourist resort on community development, with a view to enhancing the economic development of the host communities. This study adopted a survey research method and used four different sets of questionnaires to collect research data from the household heads, tourists, staff of Ikogosi and Arinta tourism centre and the Ekitistate tourism board. However, analysis of data embraced the usage of stastical package for Social Science (SPSS20), Correlation analysis was used to measure the relationshipof variables. The findings among others revealed that the Ikogosi and Arinta warm spring tourist centre lack adequate network coverage and transportation problem. However, the study compels government to encourage private partnership in tourism industry; and therefore, calls for public enlightenment to be given to the host communities on the usefulness to be hospitable and polite to tourists.

Keywords: Effect; Ekiti-state; Ikogosi-ekiti warm spring; Arinta tourism; Tourist centre

Introduction

Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world Ogunberu [1]. He further asserted that it accounts for about 7% of world capital investment with revenue predicted to rise up to 1.550 billion dollars by the year 2018. Akintunde [2] elucidated that records on international tourism show that of all foreign exchange earners, tourism comes next to crude oil in some countries such as Saudi Arabia, Israel, United States and Spain. Ogbuewu 2014 also buttressed the fact that the tourism sector should be developed because of its potentials to generate foreign exchange, encourage even development, promote tourism based rural enterprises, generate employment, and accelerate rural and urban integration and cultural exchange. Nigeria would be making a lot of money from tourism, rather than reliance and solely depending on crude oil revenue.

The international tourism has long been a major source of foreign currency earning Ayodele [3]. Literatures reveals that in 1998, International tourism accounted for Eight (8) percent of the World total Export earnings and Thirty-Seven (37) percent of export and travels accounted for US$504 billion putting it ahead of all other categories of International Trade WTO 2016. Although tourism plays an important role in the economy of some countries, tourism in Africa is yet to reach its full economic maturity Nwosu [4]. It has been observed that tourism in Nigeria still suffers from neglect because the local, state and federal governments of Nigeria are still indifferent to tourism development despite the preferred status accorded the sector Edun [5] Tourism is both an industry and a response to social needs. Society’s adoption does not have a discrete image like other industry sectors partly because of its heterogeneity and because many of its components are largely composed of small businesses, but it is pervasive across world Afolabi [6].

Nigeria has several capacities on tourism that has not been used. For example, Ikogosi Warm Spring and Arinta Waterfall are tourism resorts that one has very little information on how much they have developed and the potential exploited. There is no doubt that both sites have some resources that could be utilized to enhance the quality of life. It is believed that developing and organizing Ikogosi Warm Spring and Arinta Water Falls could metamorphose into community fairs and become special recreational facilities that could attract all and sundry within and outside Nigeria to come, relax, and boost the social and economy development of the community and the state. At the same time, it can create a sense of community pride and unity as well as an ideal occasion to showcase the communities’ local artists and craftsman and to demonstrate their skill as well as exhibiting and disposing their products.

The successful organization of the tourist centres will motivate tourists and people to spend their money thus propelling the economy of local and state government as well as improving investment, infrastructure and on social well-being [7-9]. The involvement of tourists in Ikogosi spring and Arinta waterfall will in great measure contribute positively to the state, bring about socialization, enhance improved leadership skill and trait, create fun, friendship, and recognition of the wonders of the cold and warm water and water fall. Other benefits include accomplishment of satisfaction and general improvement Reeve [10] that equips tourists with unquantifiable experience, loyalty and intention to revisit Pearce & Kang [11], Weaver and Lawton 2014; and Mc Kercher et al. [12]; Bob and Tony 2015. Although the immediate past administration of Ekiti state carried out some developments on Ikogosi, it is not clear if the government has done enough. It is therefore appropriate to explore how far both tourists’ centres have so far been developed and assess their effects on the host communities.

Statement of the research problem

Despite the importance of tourism to nations, the problems associated with tourism are enormous. For Nigeria to attain a greater height in her efforts to revamp the downward economy trend caused by mono-economic reliability on crude oil and the world economic meltdown, tourism should be recognized as one of the strategies that can be employed in the revival process bearing in mind the vast resources available in the country. Despite the enormous potentials of Ikogosi Warm spring and Arinta Waterfall to improve the local and state economy, the effect is not significant in the host communities. Ikogosi and Ipole-Iloro still remains under-developed in term of infrastructure and social amenities.

The State and Local Government have been promoting development of these sites for years. However, no significant development has been witnessed. Factors militating against tourism in these communities are not well known and these need to be found out. A mere observation shows inadequacy of facilities along the area.

On paper, Fayemi’s government administration made some policies to improve tourism in the state and with some attention to Ikogosi warm spring. It is not clear how far these policies are implemented. It is not clear how much of the tourism resources yet available on their site, there potentials and how much the surrounding populations has benefited as a result of the tourist centres. It is on the basis that the research work attempts a thorough investigation of the effect Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall on is host environments.

Research questions

Based on the above the research needs to answer some pertinent questions.

A. What are the existing tourism support facilities in the tourist centers?

B. How are the existing facilities being utilized?

C. What is the patronage level of the sites?

D. What are the problems facing the development of the resources for tourist’s attraction?

E. How have the resources benefitted the host communities?

Aim and objectives of the study

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of warm spring in Ikogosi town and Arinta waterfall in Ipole-Iloro with a view to promoting the socio-economic development of the areas.

Objectives of the study: In the course of this research, the following objectives were pursued. These are to:

A. Identify the existing tourism facilities in the study areas;

B. Assess the utilization of these facilities;

C. Investigate the patronage level of the sites;

D. Identify the problems confronting the tourist centres; and

E. Examine the effects of the tourist centres on the host population.

The study area

Ikogosi town and Ipole- Iloro are located in Ekiti West Local Government Area Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the small town of Ikogosi-Ekiti and Ipole -Iloro in Ekiti State in Western Nigeria. They are situated between lofty, steep-sided and heavily wooded, North- South Trending hills about 27.4km East of Ilesha (Osun State), and about 10.5km South East of Effon Alaye (Ekiti State). They are located just North of the 70 35’N latitude and slightly West of the 50 00’E longitude. The elevation of the general area is between 457.0- 487.5m1. Temperature ranges between 21°C and 28°C with high humidity. The South Westerly Wind and the Northeast trade Wind blow in the rainy and dry (Harmattan) seasons respectively.

Arinta Waterfall is in Ekiti state Nigeria. The location of Arinta water falls at Ipole-Iloro located at about 6km north-west of Ikogosi. It could be reached only through a secondary road from Ikogosi. The road leading to the fall passes through Ikogosi tourist centre. It has three pronounced escarpments. The first /basal cascade leaps from the rocky ledge above, brushes a polished slope and hits the rocks below with in deafening deluge. the crystal-clear waters belch a cloud of water vapour on the vicinity. The multiple cascades of Arinta waterfall is said to consist of seven distinct cascades in all. Another wonderful attraction at one of the seven cascades of the waterfall is a cobble called ‘the wonderful stone’. A research recently carried out by an Afro American indicated that the water falls could generate electricity (Hydro-electric power). This resort centre is naturally endowed with thick and evergreen forest. The two tourism centres are part of tourism endowment for which the state is blessed. Ikogosi Warm spring and Arinta waterfall are about 55km from Akure, the Ondo State capital. Ikogosi is located in Ekiti West LGA that is about 30km from Ado-Ekiti, the Ekiti State Capital (Figures 1-3).

Figure 1:Ekiti west local government area in ekiti state context.

Source: Ministry of Physical, Urban and Regional Planning, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, State 2017.


Figure 2:Ikogosi-Ekiti and Ipole Iloro in ekiti west local government area context.

Source: Ministry of Physical, Urban and Regional Planning, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, State 2017.


Figure 3:Ekiti state in Nigeria context.

Source: Ministry of Physical, Urban and Regional Planning, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, State 2017.


Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

This aspect contains a critical and in-depth evaluation of previous research works as well as some relevant concepts, which will further expand the importance of embarking on this particular study.

Literature review

The academic literature has analysed community reactions to the local development of tourism since the early writings of Young [13]; Doxey [14]. Several studies have highlighted the fact that tourism has effect on the host destination, there economic, environmental, and socio cultural among others Ogorelc [15]; Kayat [16]; Andereck & Vogt [17]. A comprehensive review of the recent research studies related to tourism effect on the host destination is found in the work of Easterling 2014 and, more recently, in Deery et al. [18].

The literature review suggests that each tourism impact category includes positive and negative effects and, sometimes, residents’ perceptions are contradictory. The economic tourism impact is mainly perceived by residents, on the positive hand, as a mean to generate employment, develop local economy, increase investments and economic diversification Diedrich; Liu & Var [19], others include improve local and state tax revenues, additional income, and economic quality of life Huh & Vogt [20]; Haralambopoulos & Pizam [21]. Conversely, on the negative hand, residents seem to perceive an increase in the cost of living, i.e. in prices of goods and services, and an unequal distribution of the economic benefits [17,21,22]. The environmental is a central theme on tourism since the 80s and it continues to be an interesting topic in a time when the global policy is aimed at ecological problems, such as pollution, depletion of natural resources and deforestation Kuvan & Akan [23]. In particular, the potential of tourism activities in achieving the objectives of environmental preservation and conservation have been widely studied Stewart 2015; Bramwell & Lane [24].

A study by Liu & Var [19] demonstrates that about half of the interviewed residents are in favour with tourism because it is a tool to obtain more parks and recreation areas, to improve the quality of roads and public facilities, and it does not contribute to ecological decline. Doswell [25] suggests that tourism is a tool that stimulates environmental conservation and improvement. On the negative side, many studies suggest that tourism causes traffic and pedestrian congestion, parking problems, disturbance and destruction of flora and fauna, air and water pollution, and littering [18,26-30].

In this context, a number of studies on sustainable tourism development have been made with the primary aim to study the combination of environmental conservation, local people’s livelihood and economic prerequisites of tourism [15,31,32]. Other scholars suggested that tourism also exert socio-cultural effects, such as increased intercultural communication, the modification of traditional cultures, the increase in crime, in costs of accommodation and the waiting time to deliver services Martin 2015; Diedrich and Garcia-Buades [17]; Ross [33].

Puczkó & Rátz 2016 stated that incorrect tourism development can lead to increase stress on the community and to a negative change in the destinations’ sociocultural and physical characteristics. Dogan [33] suggests that tourism also causes a change in habits, daily routines, social lives, beliefs, and values. Perdue et al. [29] focus on the geographic relocation of residents due to the increase in second homeowners. The theme of the ratio of permanent residents to the number of second homeowners and tourists was further investigated, finding that if there is an imbalance, conflict may arise (Diedrich and Garcia- Buades 2017; Andereck [17]. On the other hand, tourism can also produce positive socio-cultural effects, such as an increase in the community services, recreational and cultural facilities, cultural events and cultural exchanges [19,27- 29]. However, the academic literatures literatures [30]; Nyaupane [34,35] among others focus also on the role that tourism plays in terms of social and cultural preservation, revitalization of ethic culture, and promotion of indigenous arts and crafts industries in the host regions with an increasing concern about the ethical behaviour of both tourism businesses and tourists.

Conceptual framework

Several models are developed to assess the effect of tourism on the host community and the ways in which these effects are perceived by locals. Doxey‟s Irridex Model [24] and Butler’s Tourist Area Life Cycle Model [36] are widely used to assess tourist-host relationships and their specific socio-cultural effects.

Butler’s tourist area lifecycle model: Butler’s Tourist Area Lifecycle Model [36] proposes that tourism is developed through the stages of exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline. At the exploration stage, independent or explorer-type tourists discover the destination area, commercial activities in the destination area are usually minimal and the tourist and the local resident contacts are frequent. At this stage little or no marketing activities occur. At the involvement and development stages, infrastructure and services are created to serve the growing number of tourists.

At these stages, robust infrastructural development occurs. Initially, locally-owned businesses are set up to provide tourism services but gradually control of tourism is transferred to the externals. Mass tourists replace explorer type tourists and the relationship between tourists and hosts becomes more commercial. At the consolidation stage the social effect of tourism emerges. According to [63], “The large numbers of visitors and the facilities provided for them can be expected to arouse some opposition and discontent among permanent residents.

The concept of sustainable tourism development: Over the last few decades there has been rapid development of tourism generating huge growth in destination areas all over the world. The rapid expansion of tourism also creates environmental, economic and social problems. Governments and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) are increasingly concerned about the negative effect of tourism and its effect on livelihoods. These situations demand more environmental and host friendly tourism activities. Since the 1980s, sustainable development has become a popular word in development studies, in general, and in tourism research in particular.

The concept of sustainability has its roots in environmentalism. Economic activities have been negatively affecting the environment and biodiversity, creating depletion of the ozone layer and contributing to increased pollution. So, protecting the environment and making development less harmful is essential as development takes place in the environment. The Brundtland Commission Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development WCED, 1987 first combines both concepts and defines development as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This report explains two key concepts 1987

A. “The concept of needs and subjectsive well- being, particularly to the poor to whom priority should be given; and

B. The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet the present and future needs”.

Sustainable tourism principles and practices: The conservation and sustainable use of natural, social and cultural resources is crucial. Therefore, tourism should be planned and managed within environmental limits and with due regard for the long-term appropriate use of natural and human resources. Tourism planning, development and operation should be integrated into national and local sustainable development strategies. In particular, consideration should be given to different types of tourism development and the ways in which they link with existing land and resources uses and socio-cultural factors. Tourism should support a wide range of local economic activities, taking environmental costs and benefits into account, but it should not be permitted to become an activity which dominates the economic base of an area.

Local communities should be encouraged and expected to participate in the planning, development and control of tourism with the support of government and the industry. Particular attention should be paid to involving indigenous people, women and minority groups to ensure the equitable distribution of the benefits of tourism. All organizations and individuals should respect the culture, the economy, the way of life, environment and political structures in the destination area.

The concept of equity and equality: A conceptual discussion of equity and equality, and its different uses in the educational discourse, is a useful endeavor for purposes of theory, methodology and practices as well. The fact that the use of these notions has evolved in different ways over time depending on the particularities of social and political contexts arises many questions and increases the complexity of any attempt of cross-national and comparative studies. Further problematical the discussion is what could be considered a socio-political and historical dimension; that is, the various ways (and frames) in which these concepts have been used in the educational discourse over time in response to existing social and political climates of opinion. This concept could be considered as a matter of social justice and access to capital.

If we assume, as Hutmacher does, that: Equality typically designates equivalence between two or more terms, assessed on a scale of values or preference criteria, inequality thus characterizes a difference, a disparity or a gap in terms of advantage or disadvantage in material and/or symbolic resources, such as wealth, social recognition, prestige, authority, power and influence [37]. Embracing this approach, Bourdieu [38] classification of three major forms of capital (economic, cultural and social) can prove useful as theoretical framework and a starting ground for cross-national studies on equity and equality. Bourdieu [38] also considers social capital to be embodied in the networks of social relations among individuals and groups.

The volume of this form of capital is assumed to depend on the size of the networks that the individual is able to mobilize and the amount of economic, cultural and social capital that these networks possess. Since the concept of equity denotes the allocation of facilities to different communities in response to their order of needs, for instance, if Ten (10) facilities are to be distributed to Ipole-Iloro where the Arinta Water Fall is located, the same number of facilities will also be allocated to Ikogosi-Ekiti, and equality concept means a system of distributing facilities among different settlements or communities at equal rate so as to ensure equal level of development. It will however be worthwhile if more government attention in term of provision of adequate and effective facilities could be given the warm spring in order to make it as equal as that of Arinta Water Fall in term of development. Hence, the socioeconomic activities of people of Ikogosi-Ekiti will be improved through the effective operation of the warm spring.

Research Methodology

The term methodology explains the specification of the procedure used in collecting and analyzing data so as to solve hypothetical problems arising in the research such that the difference between the cost of obtaining various levels of accuracy and the expected value of the information associated with each level of accuracy is minimized Ajayi 2014. It is the background against which the reader evaluates the findings and makes conclusions. It shows the specific methods employed at arriving at valid and reliable results relative to the purpose of the research. Research methodology describes the procedures followed in realizing the goals and objectives of the research. It refers to the procedural framework within which the research is conducted.

Research design

Kothari [39] opines that research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. This research is designed to study the effects of Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall on Ikogosi and Ipole - Iloro communities Ekiti state, Nigeria. For the purpose of this research, a field survey method was adopted to ensure that meaningful data were collected from primary and secondary sources of data. The collected data were subjected to analyses using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The research design adopted for this study is in three phases. These are pre-survey, survey and post survey (Figure 4).

Figure 4:Research design.


A. The pre-survey phase: This includes reconnaissance survey carried out in order to get familiar with the study area [40- 46].

B. The survey phase: This is the main survey in which all necessary data needed for the research were collected.

C. The post-survey phase: This follows the process of survey where some of the information left during the survey phase was adequately taken note of and the mistake made were recognized and corrected.

Both open and close ended questionnaires were administered to two categories of respondents (residents and tourists) while an interview was used for the staff members and the officials of the State Tourism Board to sought their opinions. In this study, the Ikogosi tourist Centreon their host community was examined and evaluated [47-51].

Sources of data

Reconnaissance survey: Prior to the actual data collection, a reconnaissance survey was carried out and this involved visitation to Ikogosi and Ipole -Iloro, taking note of the present state, carrying out oral interviews and consultations with staffs of the tourist [52-56]. This survey was in form of an observation research. Observation research is the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning of communicating with them[57].

Primary sources of data: These are unpublished firsthand information generated by the researcher through personal observation [58], questionnaire was used to collect data from the tourists, and the people living around the tourist centre on their demographic and socio-economic characteristics and residents’ and tourist’s assessment of the choice of the tourist centres, while, an interview was used to gather information from staff of the tourist centres. In addition, photographs of the tourists and the study areas were taken including personal observation [58-61].

Secondary source of data: These consist of information derived from existing literature; they include published materials on tourism [62], undergraduate and post-graduate dissertation and information guidelines were used. It also involves efforts made by the researcher to get the based map of the study area. Information gathered from internet and agencies connected with tourism industry in Ekiti state were used [63-65].

Target population

For the purpose of getting a representative sample of people that are relevant to the purpose of this study. The target population the relevant groups for a research [65]. According to Adetoro [66], it is the population on whom the research questionnaires were administered. The target populations for this study are the tourists at Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall, the residents of the host communities, the workers at the tourist centres, and officials of Ekiti State Tourism Board.

In 1991, National Population Census put the estimate of the inhabitants of the Ikogosi and Ipole - Iloro communities at 6,984 and10, 560 respectively. A projected population for the 2017 was arrived at by projecting the population.

The expected population of the town based on the projection to 2017 is 13,386 and 17978 persons for Ikogosi and Ipole Iloro respectively (Table 1).

Where total population is 13,386 (from Table 1 above), and average Household size is 7 persons Faskin, (2000).

There is no study to show the number of households per building, however pilot survey carried out recently in the study area revealed that majority of the buildings have five household. The total number of buildings in Ikogosi and Ipole-Iloro with 1912 and 2568 households amounted to 382 and 514 respectively.

Table 1:Population of Ikogosi and Ipole-Iloro.

Source: National Population Commission, 1991


interview guide was used for the tourist centre workers and the officials of Ekiti state Tourism Board. Precisely, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays and publics holidays are notable days when the tourist centre is mostly patronized by different people. For this research, one weekend, Good Friday and Easter Monday in the month of April 2017 were selected for administering the questionnaire. A total of one hundred and Forty-Nine (149) questionnaires was prepared and administered to the tourists at the tourist centres during the questionnaire administration. Neuman as cited in Yusuf [40] opines that “larger populations permit smaller sampling ratio for equally good sample because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink” (Table 1 & 2).

Table 2:Sample Size for the Residents of the Host Communities.

Source: Author’s field work 2015


Oral Interview and questionnaire administration

For this study, two sets of questionnaires were used administered to the tourists and residents in the study area see appendix 1 for the questionnaire. An interview guide was used for the official at the tourist centres and at Ekiti State Tourism Board. The questionnaire consisted of both open-ended and close-ended questions. The close-ended questions provided the respondents with the choice among the available options; more than a choice could apply. It also includes background information, socioeconomic effects on the town due to the presence of the centres. The interview guide was used to gather necessary information from the officials at the tourist centres and the officers in Ekiti State Tourism Board who have the custody of such information, the information collected from the officer shed more light on the management matter, government and maintenance.

The first set of questionnaires was based on the number of streets and settlements around the warm spring centre and the water fall. In other to conduct a thorough survey, four research assistants were trained and engaged in the administration of the questionnaires. These research assistants worked simultaneously to administer the questionnaire. The research assistants were also instructed to read and interpret the questions to respondents who could not understand English and record the information. The second set of uestionnaires was administered to the tourists and this was done on Good Friday and Easter Monday in the month of April 2017.

Data analysis

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the analysis of the data collected in this research as the researcher deemed it the most appropriate given its versatility and considering the nature of the data collected. The SPSS has the incredible capabilities and flexibilities of analyzing huge data within seconds and generating an unlimited gamut of simple and sophisticated statistical results including; simple frequency, distribution tables, pie charts, percentages, cumulative frequencies, and other distributions (Table 3).

Table 3:Sample Size for the tourists.

Source: Author’s field work 2017


Result of Findings and Discussion

This chapter presents the data collected during the fieldwork. It also deals with the analysis of data and summary of the findings. The results of the hypothesis were also displayed in this chapter. Recall, that two set of questionnaires were administered during the field work, questionnaire (A) was distributed to the residents of the host communities, while questionnaire (B) was distributed to the tourists at the tourists centres. A total of one hundred and Ninety-One (191) households at Ikogosi were selected while, a total of two hundred and Fifty-Seven (257) households at Ipole -Iloro were retrieved and analyzed total of 149 questionnaires were distributed, retrieved and analysis from the tourist [66-68].

Activities that influence the community development

The activities that influence the community development as revealed in Table 4 it is quite obvious that recreational activity is the major activity that influences the community development with the highest percentage which amounted to 82.8%. This is because of the presence of the warm spring in the community. This shows that more attentions should be on tourism development in Ikogosi- Ekiti because of its potentials. This indicates that these attractions can be of good consideration by tourists for Sedai [69] avers that a strong tourism attraction is a prerequisite for any destination to be considered by tourists (Table 4).

Table 4:Activities that influence the community development.

Source: Author’s field work 2017


Discussion on the existing facilities in Ikogosi tourist centre

An interview guide was used by the researcher to gather information both from the officers of the tourist’s centres and officers of Ekiti State Tourism Board on the existing facilities, with the assistance of the officials of the tourists centre and officers of Ekiti State Tourism Board. At the Warm Spring resort centre; there are modern facilities which could interest tourists to repeat their visit times without number. There are four V.I.P tastefully furnished chalets and four western chalets, there are also 32 states chalets flashy furnished, and 8 cabins for students on excursion.

The architectural design of the infrastructures is superb, as the chalet is in small letter d shape. A multi-purpose and well- furnished conference hall are conspicuously located at the centre of the resort facing the yet to be developed sport centre. A fascinating restaurant is adjacent to this conference hall. The restaurant is equipped with modern facilities and qualified catering officers with wealth of experience in African and inter-continental foods. Plate 7 shows the modest Warm swimming pool which is designed for both local and inter-national tourists. This beautifully designed swimming pool is well standardized and equipped with relevant materials. Kiosks (for snacks and soft drinks) are there for swimmers too.

Tourists are encouraged to relax at the swimming pool with the provided amenities. This is a true natural beauty in Nigeria and like the people of the community used to say Ikogosi is where God live (Hospitality Nigeria, 2010). Ikogosi spring resort is one of the beauties of Nigeria in terms of natural endowment. The water runs down a hilly landscape where the warm springs form a confluence with other cold springs from adjoining hills and merge into one continuous flowing stream at 70 degrees. However, it is an awesome site where two different springs flow side by side without disturbing each other: while one is cold, the other is warm, and they maintain a temperature of about 38 degrees. The whole landscape in the area is beautified with green vegetation. The measurement of the whole area of the spring is about 32 hectares and it is prevented from erosion by tall evergreen trees in which the trees form a cover for relaxation of the tourists.

In contrast to the above, it was discovered from the tourists and from the researcher’s personal observation the tourist centre is not well managed. Some of the facilities are still under construction and seem to have been abandoned for some time like the police station. The tourist centre is majorly faced with the problem of poor management system, poor maintenance and underutilization of the natural features.

Identification of the existing facilities in the tourist centre in respect of Ipole Iloro

An interview guide was used by the researcher to gather information both from the officers of the tourist centres and officers of Ekiti State Tourism Board on the existing facilities and proposed facilities to give tourists and visitors a long-lasting experience. There are no facilities at Arinta water fall aside the gate house and five shed stands for the tourists. Information from the workers was not positive as to whether or not there is any plan on ground by the government for immediate future development.

The water falls which is the natural feature, has three pronounced escarpments. The first/basal cascade leaps from the rocky ledge above, brushes a polished slope and hits the rocks below with in deafening deluge. the crystal-clear waters belch a cloud of water vapour on the vicinity. The multiple cascades of Arinta waterfall is said to consist of seven distinct cascades in all. Another wonderful attraction at one of the seven cascades of the waterfall is a cobble called ‘the wonderful stone’. A research recently carried out by an Afro American indicated that the water falls could generate electricity (Hydro-electric power). This resort centre is naturally endowed with thick and evergreen forest.

Utilization of the facilities in respect of Ikogosi and Ipole-Iloro

Tourist View on the utilization of the facilities: The tourist view on the utilization of facilities at Ikogosi warm spring in Figure 4 reveals that 67.1% of the tourists were of the opinion that the facilities were fairly utilized, while 20.1% were of the opinion that the facilities were under- utilized, 6.7% were of the opinion that facilities were not utilized and 6.0% were of the opinion that the existing facilities were highly utilized. This eventually shows that the existing facilities at Ikogosi warm spring are not fully utilized to their maximum capacity. Adeyemo (2011) affirmed the facilities at Ikogosi are fairly utilized in his study.

At Arinta - water fall the tourist view on the utilization of the facilities was based on the perception of the officers’ in-charge, residents who had visited the tourist centre and view tourists met at the tourist centre. Information gathered from the workers revealed the tourist centre is mostly patronized during festive period and level of patronage on other days is very low. They were of the view that both the natural and existing man-made facilities which were the sit-out are underutilized.

Resident’s view of the tourist centre: Result of the survey reveals that majority of the respondents believe that the tourist centre is fairly developed when compared to other tourist centres in the country in terms of good management and facilities. Only 4.6% of the respondents opined that the tourist centre is not developed. The past administrative government in the state has done some renovations and provisions of certain facilities to aid the development of the tourist centre (Figure 5 & 6). However, it is very clear that Ikogosi warm spring is still fairly developed compared to its counterparts in the world. As a result of this, it is necessary to equip the tourist centre with necessary facilities that can make it capable of meeting both national and international standards. This will eventually attract more tourists even foreigners to spend their disposable funds at the centre. The residents of Ipole Iloro were of the opinion that the tourism resource which is the Water Fall has not yet being fully developed by the government because lacks the basic facilities such as power supply, administrative building, restaurant and quest house etc. that would have aided smooth running of the centre (Table 5).

Figure 5:Plate 1: Arinta waterfall..

Source: Author’s field survey 2017, Plate 2: The existing facilities at Arinta waterfall, Source: Author’s field survey 2015.


Table 5:Resident view about the tourist center.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Assessment of the gate fee: The assessment of the gate fee at Ikogosi warm spring as indicated in Figure 7 shows, majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the gate fee to tourist centre was too expensive. Out of the 149 tourists sampled, 64% and 36% said yes and no respectively. N500 for adult and N200 for children are charged as the gate fee at Ikogosi warm spring. The respondents were of the view that the gate fee is too expensive and that it should not be more than #300 and #100 for adult and children respectively. It was argued that the tourist centre is not as develop when compared to other similar tourist centres and there are no enough facilities on ground to justify the price. At Arinta water they charge as low as N100 for adult and N50 [70-76].

Tourists’ perception on level of development of the tourist centre: The analysis on Table 6 shows that 65.1% of the tourists agreed that the tourism centre is fairly developed, 20.1% agreed that it is developed and the remaining 14.8% of them agreed that the tourist centre is well developed. The availability of infrastructures, facilities and level of development of this tourist centre are considered as fair. This can affect the rate of tourist influx to the centre. Based on personal observation it was discovered the tourist centre is fairly developed in terms of facilities and maintenance culture. The tourist’s perception on level of development at Arinta waterfall is that the tourist centre is not developed even compared to the nearest tourist resort, which is Ikogosi (Table 6).

Figure 6:Tourist View on the Utilization of the facilities. Source: Author’s field survey, 2017

A. Showing tourists at Ikogosi,

B. Showing tourists at Arinta waterfall,

C. Facilities at Ikogosi warm spring, Source: Author’s field survey 2017,

D. Facility at Arinta waterfall Source: Author’s field survey 2017.


Table 6:Tourists’ perception on level of development of the tourist center.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Figure 7:Assessment of the gate fee.

Source: Author’s field work 2017.


Tourist perception about provision of additional facilities: The tourist perception about provision of additional facilities at Ikogosi warm spring and if the tourists were ready to pay for the usage of such facilities. The summary of their responses is as follow, 4.7% of the respondents sampled strongly disagreed while 73.8% agreed and 21.5% strongly agreed (Figure 7). This connotes that if more facilities were provided, people would be ready to patronize and also pay for the usage of the facilities. Such facilities include multi- purpose conference hall, golf course, sport centre and amusement park.

Figure 8:Roads condition.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017.


Roads condition: Result of the survey shows that 48.3% of the tourists agreed that road condition to the tourist centre are fair, while 20.8% were of the opinion that road condition is very bad, 4.7% were of the opinion that road condition are bad, 15.4% were of the opinion that the roads c are good, while 10.7% agreed that the roads are very good. The road leading to these sites are considered fair by most of the respondents. However, the researcher observation shows through personal observation the road from Igbara - Odo to Ikogosi is in a dilapidated state and need renovation while the road that leads Ipole- Iloro to the water fall site is in a fair condition and under is construction (Figure 8). Easy access to tourism destinations through good road network is a primary requirement of tourism attractions of a place [67]. Development of the tourism destinations will help improve the strength of the attractions. Infrastructure development should be given high priority.

Problems confronting the tourist centers in respect of Ikogosi and Ipole Iloro

Major problem of tourist centre: Result of the survey shows that like most Nigerians, the host community blames the government for inadequate facilities at the centre with 42.9% choosing this as one of the main challenges of this site. Everyone seems to opine that the majority of the responsibility of the site rests with the government. Next to that, 22.0% of the respondents were of the opinion that the problem of the tourist centre is as a result of lack of awareness of the centre. This presupposes that the government did not do enough publicity to attract visitors to the site. In other words, there was no enough publicity concerning the existence of the tourist centre, 13.1%of the respondents confirmed that the level of patronage is low because the resort is mostly patronised during festive period [77-81]. Also 6.8% of the host community respondents confirmed that the centre lack development which leads to massive emigration of the youths that they believed are much needed for the promotion and every day running and maintenance of the centre.

They ascribe the emigration movements to the State capitals around the communities such as Akure and Ado Ekiti. Other problems include; difficult topographical terrain with 9.9 % and there was more or less no blame on the tourist themselves with just 6.8% of the respondents putting the blame on bad usage by the tourists.

The major problem at Ipole - Iloro is the fact that the attraction has not been developed, which is because of a very poor level of publicity and awareness of the tourist attraction to the public [82- 84]. The general public are not aware of the existence of the tourist centre. Low level of patronage, poor transportation, lack of good infrastructure, poor communication systems, poor communal facilities, shortage of staffs, lack of ethnic unity, poor research facilities, poor access routes, lack of benefits accruing to the host community. Is the major problem identified with tourism in Arinta waterfalls planning (Table 7).

Table 7:Tourist perception about provision of additional facilities.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Effects of the tourist centres on the host populations in respect of Ikogosi and Ipole -Iloro

Creation of employment opportunities: The finds as indicated on Table 8 shows whether tourist centre creates employment opportunities for residents in the community. Majority of the respondents 47.6% of the residents sampled agreed that the presence of the tourist centre creates employment for some of the residents of the town while 26.2 % were of neutral view [85-87]. Others are 10.5% who strongly agreed, 10.5% and 5.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively. From the field survey one can denote that the presences of the tourist centre has created employment opportunity because most of the staff’s members of the tourist centre are residents of the town and also majority of the youth were engaged in transportation business using motor cycle (Okada).

It is also to be noted that gossy bottled water by UAC is located very close to the warm spring and the staff strength of this company is made up of the residents of the town. This section went further by enquiring if the tourist centre has provided desirable jobs in the community. It was observed that 42.4% of the residents as indicated in Table 9 disagreed that the presence of the tourist centre doesn’t provide desirable job for the residents of the town, also 15.7% strongly agreed, while 15.7% were of neutral view. Others are 15.2% and 11.0% who strongly disagreed and agreed respectively. It could be inferred from the survey that despite the fact that the tourist centre has created for employment opportunities, majority of the respondents disagreed that the job provided are desirable because they are seasonal, unskilled and low wages job they can increase local poverty Table 10.

Table 8:Major problems of the tourist center.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Table 9:Creation of employment opportunities.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Table 10:Provision desirable jobs in the community.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Improvement of standard of living: Result of the survey shows if the tourist centre has improved the standard of living of the residents of the community. Figure 7 show that, 45.0% of the residents sampled were of neutral view that the presence of the tourist centre has not improved the standard of living of the residents of the town while 26.2% agreed. Other responses are 15.7% who strongly disagreed while 7.9% and 5.2% of the respondents disagreed and strongly agree respectively [88]. Majority of the respondents were of neutral opinion because the effect on their standard of living is not well felt. While one may say that the centre has improved the standard of living of the people, it is also relevant to mention that it has not been significant. Only about 29% of the respondents agreed that the centre has improved their standard of living (Figure 8 & 9).

Figure 9:Improvement of standard of living.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017.


Increase in price of goods and services: The result of the survey shows if price of many goods and services in the community has increased as a result tourism. Table 11 shows that 37.7% of the residents sampled agreed that price of many goods and services in the community has increased because of tourist centre while 26.2 % were of neutral view, 9.4% disagreed, 5.8% strongly agreed and 20.9% strongly disagreed.

Table 11:Increase in price of many goods and services.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Assessment of business benefit from tourist: Result of the survey shows whether the local businesses have benefitted from the tourists. The Table 12 shows that 41.9% of the residents sampled agreed that their local businesses have benefited from the tourist while 20.9% of the respondents disagreed. Also 20.9% were of neutral view, 10.5% of the respondents strongly agreed while 5.8% strongly disagree. The local businesses that thrive as a result of the tourists include the petty trading and the okada.

Table 12:Assessment of business benefit from tourist.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Effect of the tourist center on community social development: Result of the survey shows the effect of the tourist centre on community social development. A high proportion of the sampled residents 53% said that the presents of the tourist centre have attracted the attention of the government in terms of provision of social amenities. While those who argued for improvement in standard of living accounted for 24.4%. Those in support of national and international recognition accounted for 19.3%. Those with the view of increase in population have the least number of respondents 3.8%. One can conclude that the presence of the tourist centre has attracted government attention in term of provision of social amenities like tarred road, bores hole, and electricity (Figure 7).

Influence of the tourist center on economic development: Result of the survey shows how the tourist centre influences the economic development of Ikogosi community. It is observed that a high proportion of the residents sampled confirmed that the tourist centre has influenced the economic development of the community through the provision of employment and this accounted for 55.8 percent. Creating a centre of attraction for investors accounted for 33.0 percent while, national and Increase in income because of commercial activities have the least number of respondent’s 11.3 percent. It is obvious that majority of the workers are indigenes of Ikogosi and most of the youths are also involved in the transportation business of conveying tourist to the centre (Table 13).

Table 13:Influence on economic development.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Influence of Arinta waterfall on the host community

It could be inferred from the survey the Arinta water fall has little or no effect on the residents of Ipole - Iloro and the community as a whole. The findings from the interviews with the staff members of Arinta waterfalls and community leaders, presents what they perceive to be major problems of the centre, what they thought should be done and ultimately what the centre could achieve, should it be operated at a maximal level. The problem identified with tourism in Arinta waterfalls by the management of the centre includes: transportation, lack of good infrastructure, poor communication systems, poor communal facilities, shortage of staff members, lack of ethnic unity, poor research facilities, poor access routes, lack of benefits accruing to the host community.

The management pointed that there was poor culture of maintenance on the part of the people of the host community who happens to be the main visitor to the place. They however were quick to add that the culture of maintenance by the people would likely improve since they are willing to have tourism development. From the interview with the management, the respondents stated that if this centre is properly planned to a befitting standard, it was argued that if Arinta waterfall is properly plan that it could have the following:

A. It will serve as a place where people can go for holidays and vacation.

B. It will bring about community cohesion between the members of the community.

C. It will help to build or develop the local economy especially the housing market and land value.

D. It will boost the region since the state has not shared in the general economic development of the nation.

E. It will raise the utilisation of resort plant and stabilise employment.

F. It will create new jobs and facilities that will benefit the whole community

G. Also, question was raised on what they suggest could be done to alleviate the current run-down state of the facility. The management of the tourist centre were of the view that the everyday running and management of the centre be devolved to private investors who will ensure maximum returns from the vast potential of this attraction. This corroborated some of the suggestions of the village heads suggesting that government run commercial centres are always underperforming and hence suggests that the place should be managed under some kind of Private Public Partnerships.

Summary of Findings and Recommendations

This research hasrevealed that the Ikogosi Warm Spring and Arinta waterfall are major tourism centres in Ekiti State and have the potentials to be developed into important tourist attraction sites to boost the host’s community’s economy. The summary of findings of this study based on the objectives is as follows. For objective one which is to identify the existing facilities in the tourist centres. From the research it was discovered that Ikogosi warm spring has some facilities such hotel, restaurant bar and warm water swimming pool while some facilities are still under construction. While Arinta water fall at Ipole -Iloro only has four sheds stand and a gate house all provided by government. The facilities at Ikogosi warm spring are not well managed. Some of the hotel rooms are not well kept, the internet facilities are not working.

Based on the second objective, which is to evaluate the utilization of the facilities,67.1% of the tourists sampled were of the view that the facilities at Ikogosi warm spring are fairly utilized. Also 35.4% the residents sampled at Ikogosi were of the view that the tourist centre is fairly developed. While at Ipole - Iloro, 66.1% of the respondent were of the view that facilities are not utilized because the tourist centre is undeveloped.

The findings from objective three which is to identify the problems confronting the tourist centres, at Ikogosi warm spring, 42.9% of the residents opined that the major problem of attraction is inadequate government intervention, everyone seems to opine that majority of the responsibility of the site rest with the government (Table 13). This is followed by emigration of youth where 22.0% of the respondent confirmed that the centre lacks development due to the massive emigration of the youths to well-developed areas to secure a better living. At Ipole -Iloro the respondents were also of the view that the problems of attraction were based on inadequate government intervention. The government also shows little interest on the centre this is support by the fact that the government makes little effort to attract visitors to the centre.

Finally, the last objective of the study which is to evaluate the effects of the tourist centres on the host population at Ikogosi. 47.6% of the respondents which were the residents at Ikogosi were of the view that the tourist centre creates employment opportunities for them. While 42.4% of the respondents opined that even though the tourist centre provides job opportunities, the job being provided are not desirable because they are unskilled and low wages job which increase the local poverty level. Also, in respect to improved standard of living of the respondents as result of the warm spring, 45.0% of the respondents were of neutral view based on the fact that the effect of the tourist centre is never felt on their standard of living. 80.7% of the respondents opined the presence of the tourist centre influences their community development such as provision of tarred road and bore holes (Table 13). Also 37.7% agrees that there is increase in price of goods and services as a result of the tourist centre.

At Ipole-Iloro, the study shows that the tourist centre doesn’t influence the community development. Findings revealed that the waterfall is just a potential tourist centre which has not yet been developed. This research reveals that the level of awareness and general visitation to tourist centres is low (Figure 10). This is arguably due to inherent lack of tourism culture, lack of publicity and inadequate promotional activities coupled with low level of development of tourist destinations and low consumer incomes.

Figure 10:Effect of the tourist center on community social development.

Source: Author’s field survey, 2017


Recommendation

Considering the findings and interpretations it can be said that both government and residents admit that development of Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta water fall will create positive socio-economic impacts on local community. The following recommendations may facilitatethe utilization of these two tourism potentials and also maximize prospects of development of host communities.

A. Government should endeavour to assist Ikogosi and Ipole- Iloro by improving transportation facilities that leads to the tourist centre from different States through the following: Construction of good roads for the region, provision of adequate transportation facilities such as vehicles, proper maintenance of the existing roads and Upgrading of the existing roads.

B. Media awareness is a contributing factor to any tourist destination in the world. The government should try as much as they can to market Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall as a potential tourist destination. Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall of Ekiti states have all it takes to match up with the rest of the world in terms of tourism. In that sense, proper and efficient promotion strategy should be implemented and executed in order to market the area and create global awareness.

C. The government should come up with proper policy implementation that would protect the environment from losing value and protect the inhabitants, investors and other tourism stakeholders in the area. The policy should be harnessed in such a way that it will ensure sustainability of the tourist centres.

D. In case of Ikogosi warm spring government has made available some facilities but proper management and effective monitoring of the existing facilities must be put in place because tourists that lodge at the tourist centre opined that the tourist centre is poorly managed.

E. Government-private partnership should be encouraged to stimulate development in the region. In the advanced world, public and private partnership promotes development in any tourism destination. Therefore, the government should encourage partnership with private individuals in promoting the tourism development in Ekiti state.

F. Finally, there should be a deliberate effort by the state government to pay absolute attention towards developing Ikogosi warm spring and Arinta waterfall. The development of this tourist destination should be an uppermost priority to the three tiers of government (Federal, State and Local government).

Conclusion

Tourism means visiting places for pleasure rather than going there for work. It is an activity, which cuts across conventional sectors in the economy. It requires inputs of economic, social, cultural and environmental nature. It is often described as being multi-faceted [42]. It is one of the world’s fastest growing sectors of economic activity. It is a source of foreign exchange as well as employer of labour. The development of tourism and the provision of leisure activities provide self-esteem and satisfy curiosity [43]. Based on these research findings, it is concluded that tourism is a valuable contributor to community sustainability and therefore, the government should assist the tourism industry through partnership with host communities as a backup options for more intensive community participation in line with tourism development. Also, more facilities should be put in place in order to upgrade it to international standard.

The effect of tourism on the local community can be positive or negative depending on development of the region. The hypothesis tested reveals that Ikogosi warm spring influenced the economic development of the community. There is therefore a need to recommend to the State government to develop these sites to meet international standard so that tourists will patronize these centres. This will not only generate revenue for the host communities but will provide employment opportunities for the unemployed populace of the communities and foster the conservation of the natural resources [44-57].

The tourist centres should be properly funded by the government in collaboration with private sectors so that the potential tourist sites can be developed and maintained [57-68]. For many developing countries, tourism is one of fundamental pillars of their development process because it is one of the dominant activities in the economy, while for others, it is the only source of foreign currency and employment, and therefore constitutes the platform for their economic development [68-89]. Therefore, Tourism planners must realize that these three concepts, ‘the environment, the economy and the society are inextricably linked… like a spider’s web- touch, one part of it and reverberations will be felt throughout’ [89-91].

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© 2019 Owolabi Bo. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.



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