Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Englandc
*Corresponding author: Sonia Trigueros, Oxford Martin Programme of Nanotechnology. Department of Zoology University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, England, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Submission: June 12, 2018; Published: July 25, 2018
ISSN: 2576-8816Volume6 Issue2
Adeno-associated virus vectors (AAVs) have been used in several gene-therapy protocols since they are non-integrative and less immunogenic compared to retroviruses or lentiviruses, but several concerns such as small size capacity, high production costs, probability of immunogenicity, and their invasive route of administration has fostered the design of non-viral vectors as an alternative. Non-viral vectors are less immunogenic, do not induce major inflammatory responses, are safe and easy to produce in large scale. Nonetheless, their main limitation still is the lower cell transfection efficiency. Non-viral particles can be divided into three groups, lipoplex particles containing lipid molecules, polyplex particles based on polycations (sugars, proteins or other polymers), and inorganic nanostructures. Gene-delivery by synthetic vectors involves the endocytosis of DNA-complexes, endosomes escape, and diffusion of non-complexed DNA through the cytosol to reach the nucleus.