1Department of Chemical Engineering, Haldia Institute of Technology, India
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, India
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, India
*Corresponding author: Koushik Guha Biswas, Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Amethi, Uttar Pradesh, Pin-229304 India, Email: email@example.com
Submission: January 01, 2018;Published: February 15, 2018
Volume1 Issue1 February 2018
Phenol was selectively nitrated in liquid phase to produce ortho-nitrophenol using dilute nitric acid (30%) at room temperature in presence of hydrochloric acid treated γ-alumina. Initially Al (NO3) and NH4hCO3 were reacted to prepare Al (OH)3 which on successive calcinations at 550 ᴼC for 5h produce γ-alumina. The γ-alumina was characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and NH3-TPD analysis. The XRD profile confirmed the crystalline structure of the solid acid catalyst γ-alumina. The NH3-TPD analysis showed the development of lewis acidity on the surface of hydrochloric acid treated γ-alumina. The effects of various parameters such as concentration of reactants, types of catalyst, weight of the catalyst, solvent, temperature and time of reaction have been studied. The kinetics of the reaction was also investigated.
Keywords: Gamma alumina catalyst; Nitration reaction; Ortho-nitrophenol; Rate constant