Abstract

COJ Nursing & Healthcare

Stem Cells, Cancer and the Theory of Cancer Stem Cells in Solid Tumours
  • Open or Close Abdulmajeed Almutary*

    Medical Biotechnology, Flinders University, South Australia

    *Corresponding author:Abdulmajeed Almutary, Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Tel: +61432332385; Email: almu0047@flinders.edu.au

Submission: March 06, 2018; Published: March 22, 2018

ISSN: 2577-2007
Volume2 Issue1

Abstract

Solid tumours are an immense cancer burden and a main therapeutic challenge. The theory of cancer stem cells provides an attractive cellular mechanism to account for the therapeutic resistance exhibited by many of these tumours. There is strong evidence that various solid tumours are hierarchically managed and sustained by notable subpopulations of cancer stem cells. Recent evidence of cancer stem cells emerged from a mouse model epithelial tumorigenesis, also some models of heterogeneity may apply. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capability to renew themselves and produce lineages of the blood; yet the signals that control HSc self-renewal remain indistinct. WnT signalling pathway has crucial role in the expression of activated β-catenin which expands the HSCs in a long-term cultures. In addition, Wnt signalling can interrupt the lymphocyte progenitor cells proliferation and affect the cells development. Other similar signalling pathways such as Notch and Hedgehog (Hh) are found in normal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of cancer stem cells and tumour population could shed light on how to supress tumour growth. In this review, we suggest that by developing a new anti-cancer stem cell therapeutic agent that targets embryonic signalling pathways of cancer stem cells can improve the treatment of the disease.

Keywords: Stem cells; Cancer cells; Cancer stem cells; Self-renewal; Oncogenesis; Leukaemogenesis; Progenitor cells

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